There are two types of nodes on the Ethereum network. The first is the one that can propose blocks, and the second is the one that can’t. Those nodes not required to commit ETH do not propose blocks, but they have an important role in the network’s security. This is because they hold all block proposers accountable.
This is the phase that introduces sharding to the protocol. A scaling solution will divide the network into separate partitions called shards. These shards are designed to spread out the computational load on the mainnet.
This phase involves the introduction of “verkle trees,” which is an upgrade to Merkle proofs. The phase will help optimize data storage for Ethereum nodes.
This phase is similar to The Verge in that it concerns data storage for validators and will reduce the hard drive space required for the validators. This will, in turn, streamline network congestion.
This is the last upgrade. The phase is intended to help deliver a string of miscellaneous updates to ensure an overall smooth running of the network.
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